List Of Most Important Topics for UPSC Mains 2023

Legacy IAS Academy

Candidates should become active in preparing for the UPSC exam. Because it will be conducted in May, 28,2023. So it is the right time to start preparing for the exam. Here some important topics and patterns are described that become helpful for candidates.

UPSC Exam Pattern

Every candidate should know the UPSC Mains Syllabus pattern before starting preparing. The pattern detail is important to know for every candidate so that they may focus on the main topics despite all.

Preliminary Paper I Pattern

Candidates should focus on given below topics to pass Preliminary Paper 1

    • Science and Technology
    • Economic & Social Development Poverty, Inclusion, Social Sector Initiatives,  Demographics
    • General Science
    • Geography
    • Current Affairs
    • History

Pattern for paper 2

  • Data Interpretation
  • Analytical Ability and Logical Reasoning
  • Comprehension
  • Skills like communication skill
  • Basic numeracy, etc

Important topics overview for Main Exam

 Paper 1:  Candidates need to write essays on multiple topics

 Paper 2:  Comprised of General Science paper

 General Studies I ( Paper 02)

 General Studies II (Paper 03)

 General Studies III (Paper 04)

 General Studies IV ( Paper 05)

 General Studies I: History, and Geography of the World and Society, Indian Heritage and Culture

General Studies I:


  • Polity, Social Justice, and International Relations
  • Constitution
  • Social empowerment
  • Regionalism & secularism
  • Communalism
  • Globalisation’s effects on Indian society
  • Women’s organisation
  • Women’s Role in Indian Society
  • Indian population and Population issues
  • Poverty
  • Urbanisation, urbanisation problems, and their remedies
  • Salient features of the world’s physical geography
  • Geophysical phenomena, for instance, earthquakes Volcanic activity, and cyclone
  • Salient features of Society such as the Diversity of India
  • Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present events
  • World History such as the industrial revolution, redrawing of national boundaries,  world wars,  decolonization, colonisation, and political philosophies

General Studies II


  • Technology
  • Environment
  • Economic Development
  • Security and Disaster
  • Health, Education, Human Resources related issues.
  • Compare the Indian constitutional scheme with other countries
  • Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, features, significant provisions, and basic structure,  evolution, and amendment
  • India and its relations with neighbouring countries
  • Representation of People’s Act
  • Government policies and interventions for development in different sectors and issues of their design and implementationWelfare schemes for impotent sections of the population by the Centre and States and performance, laws, and mechanisms  of all these schemes
  • Civil service’s role in a democracy
  • Important International institutions, agencies, and their role
  • Poverty and hunger-related Issues
  • Role of NGOs, various groups and associations, SHGs,  charities,  donors, institutional and other stakeholders in the development of the country. 

General Studies III

  • Government Budgeting
  • Security forces, agencies, and their mandate
  • Relation between development and spread of extremism
  • Internal security Challenges through communication networks, the role of media, and the role of social networking sites in internal security challenges
  • Money laundering and its prevention
  • Awareness of population in the fields of IT, Computers, robotics, Space, biotechnology nano-technology, and issues relating to intellectual property rights
  • Developments of Science and Technology according to the Modern era, their applications, and effects in every field of life
  • Investment models
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Airports, Ports, Railways, Roads, etc
  • Government Budget
  • Crops and cropping patterns, irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport for Agriculture products, marketing of the agricultural product, issues related to Agriculture field, and e-technology in the aid of farmers
  • External state and non-state roles create challenges for internal security.
  • Indians’ Achievements in science & technology and the development of new technology
  • Industrial policy and its effects on industrial growth

General Studies IV

 Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude

This paper is conducted to note the  Attitude and behaviour of Candidates. The behaviour of candidates is checked by giving some population-related issues like poverty and hunger. 

Important topics for paper

  • Emotional intelligence-concepts, an emotion of a candidate in various aspects of life and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world.
  • Ethics and Human Interface: consequences of Ethics in-human actions, Essence,  ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders,  reformers, and administrators.
  • Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilisation of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; rules, laws, regulations, and conscience as sources of ethical guidance, accountability, ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance, ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

 Paper 6 and 7 are optional

 Optional Paper I

 Optional Paper-II

Candidates have 48 subjects for optional papers and can select one for optional papers. Each optional paper has two papers that are Paper I and Paper II. Optional subject and their syllabus are given below

 (i) Agriculture

 (ii) Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science

 (iii) Anthropology

 (iv) Botany

 (v) Chemistry

 (vi) Civil Engineering

 (vii) Commerce and Accountancy

 (viii) Economics

 (ix) Electrical Engineering

 (x) Geography


 (xii) History

 (xiii) Law

 (xiv) Management

 (xv) Mathematics

 (xvi) Mechanical Engineering

 (xvii) Medical Science

 (xviii) Philosophy

 (xix) Physics

 (xx) Political Science and International Relations

 (xxi) Psychology

 (xxii) Public Administration

 (xxiii) Sociology

 (xxiv) Statistics

 (xxv) Zoology

 (xxvi) Literature


If you want to pass UPSC mains, so you can join Legacy IAS Academy Coaching it’s important to concentrate on the most important topics. UPSC syllabus is so vast and the only way you can do your best is to put more effort into the most important topics. The above-mentioned are the most important topics and chapters that a candidate should focus on if he wants to pass the UPSC mains at the very first attempt.

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